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Bulat Krasilnikov
Bulat Krasilnikov

Tom Robbins Still Life With Woodpecker Epub 58


The definition of a notifiable disease is any disease that is required by law to be reported to a competent authority, usually governmental. The primary purpose of this, whether from a human or governmental perspective, is to prevent disease spread. In the UK the competent authority for human diseases is Public Health England within the Department of Health. For animals, this is the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). Devolution has led to the development of agencies that investigate animal disease on behalf of the devolved governments for example the Scottish Agricultural College (SAC) in Scotland and the Agri-Food Biosciences Institute (AFBI) of Northern Ireland. Veterinary investigations of livestock, poultry and equines are carried out by the Field Services Division of the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). This is supplemented by veterinary services offered by university-associated Veterinary Schools of which there are six in England and two in Scotland. Other organizations offer veterinary support including The Pirbright Institute (Livestock Virology), the Institute of Zoology, and the Animal Health Trust. Domestic pets are usually dealt with by private veterinary surgeons (PVS). Wildlife monitoring, surveillance and health can involve all the above organizations and a large number of charitable bodies.




tom robbins still life with woodpecker epub 58


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Some of the diseases discussed below are endemic. However, many are not and understanding how they can enter the UK is a key step in understanding the risk of emergence. For vector borne diseases there is the added concern of the vector and its distribution. Like diseases, not all potential vectors are present in the UK. The routes of pathogen entry are often termed pathways of introduction. For vector borne diseases this could take the form of an infected human or animal. For notifiable diseases some screening of animals for disease prior to movement is usually required to prevent importation of infected livestock or domestic animals. Another pathway is the introduction of the vector of a particular disease. For midges, wind movements can lead to their introduction. For other vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, passive introduction, for example the importation of dogs infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. ticks, does occur (3). Another pathway is through the movement of wildlife. For the UK, separated from the mainland of Europe by the English Channel, the main risks are associated with pathogens and vectors that are associated with migrating birds. Although not conclusively shown, it is possible that viraemic birds could expose the indigenous mosquito population to a number of viruses that would then threaten public and veterinary health. Alternatively, migrating birds are occasionally infested with ticks and this can be a route for exotic ticks, such as Hyalomma spp. to enter the UK. In addition, invasive mosquito species have established across Europe and are spreading further north. This spread into countries in Western Europe has been the source for importation of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into southern England, probably through passive transport in cars or lorries (4).


Babesia spp. only infect female ticks following blood feeding on infected animals and the parasites are transmitted via transovarial transmission to the next larval generation and subsequently to nymphal and adult ticks via transstadial transmission. Thus, at least one complete generation of ticks may be infected and are capable of transmitting the disease to naïve animals. Globally, the most significant species causing babesiosis in cattle are B. bigemina and B. bovis (105) with both being found on almost all continents. The most common species causing disease in Europe is B. divergens (Figure 4A), which is also the most widespread Babesia species affecting cattle in temperate regions and was first described in England by McFadyean and Stockman (106). It was originally named Piroplasma divergens, referencing the pear shaped paired merozoites lying at a typically divergent angle within the erythrocyte. Genetic evidence for the presence of B. divergens in British livestock has only recently been confirmed (107). Infections occur sporadically throughout Europe and may extend as far south as North Africa (108). Its distribution is defined by that of its tick vector, Ix. ricinus, which requires a microhabitat with at least 80% humidity to support metamorphosis and survival of life cycle stages off the host. This may include unimproved permanent pasture, rough moorland grazing, headlands and hedges of well-maintained pasture as well as forest floor. In addition B. divergens is zoonotic and has resulted in death in a number of humans, particularly in splenectomised or immunocompromised individuals (109). A second Babesia species has been detected in English cattle (110) transmitted by H. punctata in the South-east and based on its morphology is now considered to be the relatively non-pathogenic species B. major (111, 112) (Figure 4B). Additional species that can infect cattle include B. bovis, B. bigemina, B. ovata in Eastern Asia, B. occultans in Africa and more recently the Mediterranean area and B. venatorum (formerly Babesia sp. EU1) (105). Treatment may include supportive therapy including intravenous administration of fluids, blood transfusion and administration of vitamins as well as anti-protozoal chemotherapy using Imidocarb diproprionate. 350c69d7ab


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